Galileo's Telescopes .
Covering  everything new and old about these famous instruments. With a fresh look at Galileo and his telescopes by two fellow experimental scientist. With comments about the teaching & lack of teaching of some important aspects of  science to our  non science students.
This web site is authored by Jim & Rhoda Morris at Galileo@comcast.net 781 245 2897
Below are Links To This Web Site's Contents, Additional Important sources of information, and Lots of photos

Galileo as a ; 1 Basic research scientist,  2,Applied scientist,  3 Engineer  4 Entrepreneur 5 Galileo's Audit TrailWho was Galileo .
Galileo's telescopes;  1 Telescope dimensions 2 The optics & looking thru them  3 Building #2428 4 Gold art work #2428   5  Building #2427 6  U-Tube movies of construction   
Galileo's Team  1 References 2.Acknowledgements 3 Copy Rights and usage 4 The True Importance of This Invention
Click here to see in Galileo's own words his dream for everyone to own and or look through one of his telescopes to see the wonders in the heavens that he saw to learn what he learned.

Museum Grade Replicas Available
Resume Jim & Rhoda Morris        Also Visit     Our main web site   SciTechAntiques.com 

Two  tiny pieces of glass in the hands of a scientist  {an eyepiece and objective lens of a Galilean telescope and  a book describing his experimental results} forever  changed our relationship  to the physical and spiritual world, to our ethics-- to our moral principles.
galileo's lenses
the Hubble universe nasa
Our Universe
Milky way
Our Milky Way
solar system
Our Solar System
earth from moon
Our Earth from Moon

Galileo telescope small childern
Our fuiture

In Galileo's time--  science began using man's most reliable truth detector---- "Repeatable published physical measurements of the thing under study coupled with vigorous  technical debate using a common language called mathematics".  It works! A popular example of it working is forensic  medicine in law enforcement. Compare  today with  technology with 50 years ago. 

This issue of the practical practice of proving a scientifc work {the ethics ) should be  taught with greater vigor and   in a practical way to our non science students. A study shows some 80  percent of the public believe scientist falsify their data in their work, often enough to be dangerous.

This is unacceptable. It weakens the average non-science citizen ability  to take action when threatened with sensible irresponsibility by powerful  sources what ever they might be.

 It does not take anymore time out of the teachers   {including  museums media etc.} schedule, to hit this point harder and in a way that our young non science students understand and feel comfortable about.
Galileo's telescopes are much more than just instruments of  war, of commerce or of science.

They are the teachers
of the ultimate questions.
  • Who we are
  • What we are
  • Where we are

 They have taught  us contrary to rumors of the past that

  • We are not the center of the universe.
  • We are not at the center of our Galaxy [the Milky Way].
  • We are not even at the center of our solar system.

However  they have  ----  shown us  that

  • We are  something very special.
  • That we are very creative and resourceful in the very richest sense, and this quality is what sets us apart from other living things.

Below we describe the inside details of building Galileo's telescopes.  Buried among these details,  some hidden in Galileo's  professionalism, are the secrets generally not taught  by teachers of science, teachers  who may have been  blinded by the brilliance of the discoveries of science,  missing the intrinsic treasure and especially the rigors and  truthfulness of  science. Teachers of science today  sorely need to stress the latter issues with greater emphasis. Scientists today are being discredited by powerful agencies much  like Galileo was 400 years ago.
This is the IMSS 2428 red leather telescope we built for the IMSS.  It shows how the beautiful presentation telescope looked when new. Click the thumbnail  above for a bigger picture.  We can't claim to have built the biggest replicas of Galileo's telescopes in the world but we have had the pleasure of  fulfilling Galileo's wish to make available  as many precise copies of his instruments as possible. Limited number For Sale
These reproductions  are the most beautiful and accurate reconstructions of Galileo's telescopes in the world to date.

Every detail inside and out has been very carefully reproduced from the original.  We have also built them for a number of major museums around the world,  They are a very valuable emotional asset for teaching the secrets of science.

They're filled with overlooked  secrets of modern science Its ETHICS which has not been emphasized enough by teachers of science The most  valuable secrets our non
-science students need to understand , to realize their  hopes, and assure themselves a successful future.

The prime difference between Homo sapiens and all other forms of natures creatures is our scientific bent.
Galileo his instruments and modern way of doing science helps in the most positive way to demonstrate this. 
This IMSS 2427 telescope, built for the IMSS is  one of Galileo's development telescopes -- a most important telescope that was instrumental in designing and selling field service telescopes for Galileo's business.
Click here to see photos of the original and a short summary of the construction of this replica.

Concentrate on  descriptions of these wonder instruments below . You'll find the hidden secrets. Practice them and you'll be ahead of the game and be guaranteed  of a more successful .future.

The replica IMSS INV #2428,the red and brown leather covered telescope is composed of over 100 pieces with over 400 gilding hot stamp strikes to complete the gold decorations. The delicately formed gold decorations are  composed from over  21 intricate and interwoven  patterns requiring 21 separate hot stamps. at hundreds of dollars each to bring you the full beauty of this remarkable piece.  The figures in the  gold decorations are very unique to this telescope. We have precisely duplicated them  including most of the imperfections on the original created by  the original builder.  We have also replicated the very unusual method of construction  using thin wooden staves mixed with  resin as a composite structure which we had  found in the original early in our project.  This method is  not found in other telescopes of that time period.  The telescope has an optical power of 21.

The replica of  IMSS INV # 2427 represents a construction style commonly used in research and field grade telescopes for that time period and is a very unusual piece. The world is lucky to have it because development instruments are generally thrown away.  It has closer to 17 pieces and a power of 14. The pair complement each other, one is a presentation piece designed for people of power and influence who were asked to finance the project. the other, a field type instrument for laboratory work and for  customers or colleagues doing research work. See the links below  discussing all these topics in greater detail


 
Links To This Web Site's Contents___ Additional Important Sources of information___ Lots of Photos


We recommend
  a new book  for everyone, tech or not tech, written by some of the most qualified Scholars in this  field.  "Galileo's Telescope The Instrument The Changed the World" edited by Giorgio Strano ( curator IMSS ), Pub  Giunti 2008 (isbn 978-88-09-05938-2) It can be bought at http://www.artbooks.com/wc.dll?AB~searchquick~&cart=0  ( type in 97888090593) It is a very beautiful book/Catalog.

Most important; please don't forget to visit the IMSS the  Museum ,or its website, that has the originals and some of ours for you to see what they looked like when they were new.

  • Ask for a quote,> Call us at
    781 245 2897 or  e-mail Galileo@comcast.net
    Our telescopes are owned by a number significant museums, planetariums and professional educators.   They have been or are currently on display at;:

     

    Help your local museum/library  by Donating these beautiful instruments to your local teaching institutions. They all need your help.

    Acknowledgements
    Building an  accurate replica of these telescopes was a big project
      requiring  allot of funding, time, traveling, visiting people of many skills and disciplines.. The authors can never  thank enough all those at IMSS who gave us  access to the originals and information about their recent  restoration so that we might make  the most  accurate reproductions of these  historically significant scientific instrument for the public so they might learn and enjoy them to their fullness. Galileo's Telescope The Instrument That Changed the World .

    A short history of those who helped us with the initial technical support and funding  ; We (Jim a physicist & Rhoda a chemist both with many years of senior level experience) were commissioned  to  research and build  a very accurate replica of  the IMSS 2428 telescope for Griffith observatory Ca., the 2427 telescope for Adler Planetarium ,Chicago, to build replica's both of Galileo's telescopes  and to furnish  exploded half  models to show their unique interior construction, for the IMSS in Florence Italy ( where the originals are kept)  We also developed and  furnished  several  Canadian science centers with beautiful representative  models of the 2428 with Galileo's negative and Kepler positive eyepieces.


    We provide the reader more accurate and valuable information about How and Why Galileo made them and  provide this in various forms for display and other teaching aids or to use or  make your own. Click here for our larger site on  Galileo and his telescopes

    Our reference material, collection, and inventory includes over 2400 items books and instruments covering  a broad range of scientific topics see SciTechAntiques.com for details.
    .
    We give lectures from two experienced experimental scientist point of view with demonstrations of Galileo's telescopes and other instruments.

    In addition to this web site we also have another  one in  a sketch book style  which introduces you to the many contributors that helped in this project,  but  a word of Caution it is a very large web site. So be prepared to do some digging.
     
    A poem by  Larry Keegan

    MASTER

    he who now sees all
    makes his way
    to the mountaintop

    in years past
    he has wired circuits
    and noted the nature of electrons

    he has reached a promontory
    where south breeze blows
    a hawk circles, swiftly

    on this rock he feels communion
    with galactic mass
    and remembers
    the nighttime universe

    now he knows
    that his living eye
    gives life to the barren stars

    he has viewed the fire
    in a spectroscope
    has numbered the protons
    in the nucleus

    he sits on granite
    yet precariously
    as all the beings on his planet
    hope for breath

    and yet
    the old god is gone
    the man reflects and ponders
    creation is reversed
    evolved
    now
    he is master of the universe


     

    Picture below is  Galileo's development telescope IMSS # 2427 This telescope is now in  an extraordinary exhibit at the Franklin institute until September 7  2009 but in its own display case.

    ( picture below) is Franklin institute  
    Below is one of our very precise replica of this famous telescope in the  Franklin exhibit less the micrometer and the statue
    Click here  to see all the details  inside and out of Galileo's development telescope and our very accurate replica of it.

    The very accurate replicas of both of Galileo's telescopes,  which we made for  IMSS,  are in this exhibition.

    We  should all give thank to the IMSS  for all their hard work in putting together this very important window into the philosophy of humans creative curiosity.

    Here is the first and very important opportunity to see in our country one of the most historically important scientific instruments.  One that for ever changed our cultural view of our world. .
    Don't miss visiting  the Franklin for this  once in a life time opportunity You  will be able to see, for  the first time, one of the two remaining Galileo telescopes, the  very important development telescope IMSS#2427.  Also exhibited will be other instruments belonging to Galileo, as well as paintings, prints, and manuscripts from the priceless Medici collection. Together, the collections will showcase how the union of science, art, and political power gave rise to Galileo's success.
    This wonderful opportunity has been Created through The Franklin's exclusive partnership with the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence, Italy.

    Franklin institute was selected as the world exclusive host for "Galileo, the Medici and the Age of Astronomy",

     

    Galileo's replica telescopes

    We whole hearty recommend the wonderful New book and catalog from the IMSS: "Galileo's Telescope The Instrument That Changed the World" edited by Giorgio Strano, Publ. Giunti 2008 (isbn 978-88-09-05938-2) It can be bought at http://www.artbooks.com/wc.dll?AB~searchquick~&cart=0  ( type in 97888090593) It is a very beautiful book/Catalog.It covers the history of thought and technology in the development of the telescope over a broad spectrum of topics relevant to Galileo's time presented by a team of international experts.  It is an excellent historical and educational catalogue for their exhibition with wonderful technical analyses of the components of Galileo's telescope illustrated with magnificent photographs.

    (We were privileged to be one of the collaborators)

    .


     
    Dr. Giorgio Strano - Curator at the IMSS ( a very beautiful museum with beautiful instruments of science  where the original telescopes are kept) looking out over Florence's roof tops  from the top of the IMSS with our precisely made  recreation of IMSS 2428  much as Galileo Galilei might have done with one of his instruments some 400 years ago. Dr. Giorgio Strano and the staff of IMSS made it possible to have access to the originals to gather the measurements so important to the success of  this project.

    IMSS Our Exploded replica of Galileo's telescope
    A very unique educational display of the  Galileo's  IMSS 2428 telescope. We have  some of our replica's cut  in half to show  the very unusual interior barrel stave resin composite construction. It also shows the arrangement of the lenses with their stops. Equally visible is  the very beautiful gilded leather exterior construction with all of its decorations. We have furnished this model to the History of Science Florence Italy home of the originals and it has been very well received by the visitors
    .

    *The IMSS has one of the most extraordinary collections of very significant and beautiful  scientific instruments including examples of Nobile's Astatic Galvanometers the instrument which was the foundation of modern electrical discoveries .
     
    Galileo as a ; 1 Basic research scientist,  2,Applied scientist,  3 Engineer  4 Entrepreneur 5 Galileo's Audit Trail Who was Galileo . 
    Galileo's telescopes;
     1 Telescope dimensions 2 The optics & looking thru them  3 Building #2428 4 Gold art work #2428   5  Building #2427 6  U-Tube movies of construction 
    Galileo's Team  1 References 2.Acknowledgements 3  Copy Rights and usage 4 Where is does  this lead to?

    Galileo cries out to us for help in making accurate replicas of his telescopes and to distribute them to show us his discoveries of the wonders of nature.

    Below is the translation of his  letter 19th of March 1610 to the Tuscan court
    and look at the expression on his face in the picture below.
    .
    From A English translation of Galileo's letter ref.1

    A translation of Galileo's letter "In order to maintain and increase the renown of these discoveries, it appears to me necessary to have the truth seen and recognized, by means of the effect itself, by as many people as possible.

    I have done, and am doing, this in Venice and Padua. But "spyglasses" that are most exquisite and capable of showing all the observations are very rare, and among the sixty that I have made, at great cost and effort, I have been able to find only a very small number. These few, however, I have planned to send to great princes, and in particular to the relatives of the Most Serene Grand Duke. And already I have been asked for instruments[ by the Most Serene Duke of Bavaria and the Elector of Cologne, and also by the Most Illustrious and Reverend Cardinal Del Monte, to whom I shall send [spyglasses] as soon as possible, together with the treatise. My desire would be to send them also to France, Spain, Poland, Austria, Mantua, Modena, Urbino, and wherever else it would please His Most Serene Highness."


     Galileo's spirit appears to be imploring us to join him in his unfinished work---.that of  using  more reproductions of his telescopes to help continue his work of teaching the value of science_ not just of  the heavens. Photo of one of our replicas courtesy L. B. Johnson Library

    .Visit our you-tube site for our, impromptu, videos constructing these telescopes

    ..Our replica, below, of Galileo's telescope IMSS #2428 on display at Griffith Observatory  A wonderful Inspiring place to visit. A beloved icon of Los Angeles and world leader in public astronomy. Since 1935, the Observatory has given tens of millions of visitors the opportunity to become observers.

     
    We bet that you have seen many photos of this replica of Galileo's telescope at Griffith Observatory on the web helping them teach us about science

    This is one of  our unique and precise replicas. It is even more beautiful with the  tubes holding the lenses  pulled out a bit to show the decorations hidden inside. Next time you're at Griffith ask them to do this..

    You  can own one also.
    You can help Galileo spread the good word about basic scientific research and how it will  help solve so many of the problems facing us in our modern world.

    This is once in a life time investment.
    Few will ever take the time needed, enjoy all the help and resource of so many  experts in the field, coupled with  our experience  to make these replicas the truest to the originals to date. Just as Galileo would have wanted it. 

    Have one in your collection
    and loan it or  donate it  to one of  your local teaching institutions. It  is  not just a one time teaching tool for the IYA.

    Galileo's telescopes and their story are timeless
    and will  continue to be an asset  in teaching about science for another  400 years.  These replicas will participate in this effort.  They will pay their way for many decades in the future

     

    Below: one of our replicas at IMSS Florence, Italy next to Galileo's original telescope  IMSS # 2428.
    IMSS 
    has two pairs of our replicas (IMSS # 2427,  #2428) on traveling displays reminding  us about the importance Galileo's work in our lives. We also have furnished IMSS with exploded views showing the unique  interior construction. Visit their  wonderful Museum in Florence Italy and Visit their web site.










     






    The IMSS,  Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence, Italy on the banks of the Arno river in Florence Italy is one of the most beautiful and wonderful places to visit.  The IMSS has one of the most  extraordinary collections of very significant and beautiful  scientific instruments including examples of Nobile's astatic galvanometers the instrument which was the foundation of modern electrical discoveries
    .

     

     

    Above one of our replicas of Galileo's telescope, IMSS 2427,  at Adler Planetarium. Michelle Nichols Master Educator at the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum in Chicago Illinois checking out  Adler's new replica of Galileo's telescope IMSS 2427 which we built to the precise specifications of Galileo's original telescope. Adler Planetarium a wonderful, must, place to visit to see their spectacular and beautiful collection of instruments of astronomy as well as views of Lake Michigan and the skyline of down town Chicago.


     Below are  a number of configurations available of our Galileo telescopes
    Call or email us 781 245 2897 Galileo@comcast.net

    Our Replica of Galileo's Telescope IMSS   INV #2428. Florence Italy.
    Now on display at Griffith Observatory California

     

    We constructed the telescopes  IMSS INV # 2428, and 2427 for oIMSS, Griffith observatory, , Beijing Planetarium, etc. . 2428 is complete to the smallest detail: the delicate gold embossed decorations precisely reconstructed from our photographs of the original, the leather covering, the original coloring, its very unusual wood thin  stave construction, its odd focal length objective lens – all construction details that have not been done before or to this level of precision. 
     


    There are over a hundred pieces in making the telescope IMSS 2428,over 400 hand stamped decorations using 21 separate gold stamps,  months of measurement of the decorative patterns on the originals to make these gold stamping dies. Even copying most of irregularities in the pattern of the original     #00FFFF"> 
     


    Below is the interesting step by step process of making the IMSS# 2428


    The seeds of Galileo's presentation telescope, wood staves. They are used in all the tubular construction.


    The overall view of the bare body and sliding lens holders showing the novel construction


    Above creating the art work from hundreds of high resolution photo. Below we take you through several steps in. the process including the  jig for applying the stamp that would allow the natural operator randomness of placing the stamp on the leather.


    Test
     plate of hot stamp dies. We went through 4 of them before we got it right each die cost upwards several hundred $ a piece with handle



     
    Finally a skilled craftsman applying the hot stamped decorations carefully by hand Including a number irregularities we found in the original decorations.


    A very important exploded view of the interior of Galileo's leather covered telescope we made for IMSS in Florence Italy showing the very unique construction of this famous telescope. For more detail  about the various forms that we furnish scroll down to the figures of the IMSS 2427

     


    A photo of the Original Galileo Telescopes in an earlier display, no longer used, at Florence Italy.  Top telescope is IMSS 2427, bottom IMSS 2428 The broken lens IMSS 2429 in the center of the decorated ellipse

    Our mission statement parallels Galileo's. See white box below.

    We are making   very precise replicas of Galileo's telescopes to help spread the significance of basic scientific research  using Galileo as a case study of how science works.

    1,What was Galileo really like? Is he just about telescopes and church?
    2,Are there still things we can  learn from (not about) him that are  relevant today?
    3,Are there some, all most hidden, messages that we have not yet decoded or ignored because of  the complexities of today's science?
    How about In Galileo Galilei's  letter March 19 1610 to the Tuscan court? 

    In the very first sentence he both states a problem in handling  his scientific work and its solution  which is  particularly applicable in  solving issues within  today's science.

    In the latter half he discuses the amount of work and the difficulty in funding  his science. So Galileo is relevant to to day science and we get the flavor of the business of science in 1600 and notice that it is not so different than today, including the nature of adversaries to science. So its a good working example for teaching purposes

    Taking up Galileo's challenge in his letter we have taken up the task of  helping to tell Galileo's story and passing its very important lessons on to the public  by replicating with great care, Galileo's two internationally famous telescopes. We have  and are  building these replicas using the  measurements that we made with the assistance of the the IMSS staff for the two originals telescopes on display at the IMSS museum in Florence, Italy and from information published in the literature. We critiqued all these data as professional scientist with considerable technical experience in experimental physics and chemistry

    Today many are concerned that there is the same or maybe greater  hostility against basic research today than 400 years ago. The problem is our   issues are of greater proportions, than that the choice of a  planetary system to support, Our issues are  evolution versus intelligent design.  stem cell research versus definitions of life,  global warming and scientist lying to mention a few.. 

    We invite you to Click here to read a special scientific paper published in Science, May 18, 2007 discussing a serious local and global threat to our science ""Childhood origins of adult resistance to science"? It is coauthored By Paul Bloom and Deena Skolnick Weisberg (Yale) and focuses on neuroscience and evolutionary biology but there is evidence that it's true for most all branches of science including astronomy. We have created our own Abstract of this important paper for one to consider.

    So in the authors opinion Galileo's story is even more relevant today and his solution is even more relevant and important. Presented in the right format emphasizing trust more strongly in the display could help reduce the skepticism of scientific work.

     

    Again
    Visit our you tube site for videos constructing the telescopes

    and

    you tube spectroscope with Galileo's telescopes

     

    Click here to see
    1, What will one really sees looking through these telescopes?
    2, What is the shortest distance between Galileo's telescopes telescope and an object?
    3, What is the difference  one sees between the Galilean and Kepler eyepiece design?

    Measuring Galileo original telescopes lengths Ambiguity in the  literature of the physical dimensions of Galileo's telescopes
    Historical uncertainties about Galileo personality & technical ability in the  literature

    We also make for sale a very special spectroscope made out of Replicas of Galileo's telescopes

    prism of spectroscope made of Galileo's telescope

    Below a special purpose representation of Galileo leather covered telescope. IMSS inventory #2448

    A partial batch of Galilean type telescopes for important science centers in Canada

    Our Replica of  Galileo's Telescope  IMSS INV#2427 ,
    Now at IMSS Florence Italy. Adler Planetarium Chicago Illinois
    Beijing Planetarium, etc  

    We constructed INV # 2427,  pictured above, for the Adler Planetarium.  It re-creates the equally interesting laboratory type telescope and the only other known telescope ascribed to Galileo. Its main barrel consists of a split wood tube covered with paper, painted, and reinforced with copper wire bands along its full length.

     Above a  micrometer such as Galileo may have used for measure telescope power versus lens shape and for measuring the distance  of Jupiter moons  from the planet

     We have recently furnished the extra accessories below to the Huntington Library  for their new displays on science.


    A short note; One cannot convince us that Galileo did not try positive lenses in his development work because there were certainly more positive lenses than negative ones in the inventory of spectacle and magnifiers shops, one of his first sources of lenses.

    Click here to get  a quick comparison of the field of view  with a discussion of each.

    This was a special Kepler eyepiece we especially designed to focus on objects less than 40 feet from the telescope and have a power of about 26. We have coupled this telescope with a sort of "Galiletarium "(a planetarium for Galilean objects, as a target of images, with proper scale, of the celestial objects for which Galileo made such remarkable new discoveries through his telescopes. Call or email us for details...



    This model has been a successful tool for showing the location of the essential parts
    of Galileo's work/development telescope. Throw a light shield over it and it works



    Our  half telescope IMSS 2427 mounted on a stand for  display


    The objective end of our half telescope IMSS 2427


    Can one use Galileo's two telescopes in doors? Yes depending on the size of the room. Even though most everyone knows that telescopes are generally used to bring thing that are far away closer, that the closer the object is the further one has to pull out the eyepiece to focus on that object. Of course the distance one can pull out the eyepiece before it falls out of the telescope is limited to how long it is. The graph below gives us the information for the shortest distance the object can be from the front of the telescope

    The bottom graph shows the diameter of an object which would fill the field of view seen in the telescope versus distance from the telescope.


     

    Links To This Web Site's Contents___ Additional Important Sources of information___ Lots of Photos

    Galileo as a ; 1 Basic research scientist,  2,Applied scientist,  3 Engineer  4 Entrepreneur 5 Galileo's Audit TrailWho was Galileo .
    Galileo's telescopes;  1 Telescope dimensions 2 The optics & looking thru them  3 Building #2428 4 Gold art work #2428   5  Building #2427 6  U-Tube movies of construction
    Galileo's Team  1 References 2.Acknowledgements 3 Copy Rights and usage 4 The True Importance of This Invention

    Summary
    The original telescopes were very  beautiful works  of 1600  art. As  with  all exceptional art it enriches our lives carrying  with it a very  powerful and emotional   story that deeply touches the very fabric of our culture and belief system.
    With this as our guide and purpose we took with great care and exercised  our experience as experimental scientist replicating  both telescopes. We reproduced each part of each  instruments as close as possible to the originals. We took special  attention to all details, insides and out. This  is what  all good science demands. It was also a  replication of Galileo scientific work  ethics. It was understood that our replica's  were going to be seen by millions of people for   they were being made  for renown educational intuitions including the IMSS in Florence Italy, Griffith observatory Adler Planetarium, and  the Lyndon B. Johnson's library  and many more all demanding the very  best for their visitors. So we did  lots of research  critically examining the literature and taking measurements from the originals etc.------

    Each telescope was assembled by hand with materials and techniques consistent with those most likely used  in Galileo's day. Our dimensional accuracy has been kept to within a few percent in all cases and in some instances to fractions of a millimeter of the originals. We also chose not to antique them but to show them as they would have looked when new.

    Since our replicas are so  accurately reproduced they are particularly useful as research, teaching, and display tools. One can see, feel, and operate them as Galileo saw, felt and operated them. We also  build furnish replicas  which are half a  telescope split apart  along their length where one can study   the interior construction. These tactile experiences high light in a very real way  Galileo's and the telescope's  virtues and  faults and offer a more mature insight into 1609 telescope making and operation in a way that Galileo, his associates and customers would have experienced.

     We also have built other Galileo instruments which are available and for sale.
     

    For further information on our data gathering process and construction details, please go to the following links:
     

    Replication of IMSS #2428

    Optics # 2428
    Construction details Stave Tube  #2428
    Art work gold leaf embosing #2428
     

    Replication of IMSS #2427

    Replication details of IMSS 2427  telescope

     

     

    Because of this effort these very beautiful, unique, and important instrument will only increase in value with time.

    The replica MSS INV #2428,the leather covered telescope,   has over 100 pieces, has  21 intricate decorations requiring 21 separate hot stamps  with over 400 gilding hot stamp strikes to complete the  decorations. It replicates the unusual thin stave construction feature, and has an optical power of 21.

    The replica of  IMSS INV # 2427 represents a construction style commonly used in research and field grade telescopes for that time period and is a very unusual piece. The world is lucky to have it because development instruments are generally thrown away.  It has closer to 17 pieces and a power of 14. The pair complement each other, one is a presentation piece designed for people of power and influence, the other, a field type instrument for laboratory work and for  customers or colleagues doing research work.

    We were able to achieve this high level of accuracy in the reproduction of these telescopes through the patience and very professional help of the staff at IMSS in Florence Italy, at the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles, and at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. They shared their considerable knowledge of these instruments with us.  At the Adler Planetarium they gave us access to the interesting Cipriani replicas and at the IMSS we were able to make measurements and take high resolution photographs of the original Galileo instruments on display.

    We found it was absolutely essential to make our own measurements of the original leather telescope having found a number of important differences in the data for its dimensions and materials in the published literature and in existing replicas. We made a concerted effort in checking and cross checking our data to resolve these differences.  (It is important to note that there are many so-called replicas which are so far from the characteristics of the IMSS originals that we did not include them in our comparison studies.)  For those instances where no data was available on the originals, such as that for the existing eyepiece holder in the leather covered telescope, IMSS #2428, we made and noted our best choice based on our own technical experience which is considerable.  However if new or more reliable information becomes available on the eyepiece holder, our telescope could accommodate the lens in the ocular draw tube itself if necessary.  The bottom line is that we believe our replicas to be the most accurate and finest made to date and will hopefully serve as standards for other replication in the future.

    The real importance of the Galileo's telescopes  
    The Audit Trail
    In researching this ventures into developing and using the telescope, we have come to see Galileo’s saga and his telescopes as remarkable and timeless examples of what the business of science is all about and how science really works.  Galileo and his instruments are an excellent case study of the working of science and basic research – the contributions they make to our knowledge and the fragile threads that supports themThe telescopes demonstrate that the processes used by science ensure the truth will be revealed no matter how strong the bias. When discoveries are suppressed it is only a matter of time before they come to light again.  When errors are made, science’s self correcting processes ,The Audit Trail, will reveal them.  Sciences built in self correcting  test of reliability.  These processes of science are not unique to science   but  they are the most important aspect of science for  those that are not keyed into science and have to little time to learn about science and its instruments.  Remember the great majority 99.+% of those out there that pay the  scientist salaries and their equipment (Hubble $6 billon with a  daily cost of about $550,000.).Galileo's story shows us what it took Galileo to get money to support his science. It is still relevant today. IYA is once every 400 years. His story about  how science works should be part of our the daily curriculum .

    For those with the professional interest: we are  making these very precise museum grade  replicas for sale museums, serious collectors and those who so kindly donate instruments of this quality to their favorite museums and other teaching institutions.  If you are interested, please contact us at k1ugm@comcast.net

     

    Where does all of this really lead to?

    Many may not have a complete feeling for the importance  of Galileo's work on the telescope which added so much  to modern science than just his discoveries in astronomy or his teaching of the use of  physical measurements instead of intuition. 
    We are not minimizing his total work but high lighting the magnitude of his contribution  when one considers that the telescope was an essential and motivating push in  the science of optics.     The telescope for example became an essential part of many  engineering, scientific, and medical  instruments. used today.  To mention just a few:   Transits gave us much more accurate surveying data and , at Greenwich, we get more accurate  time from sun and star transits. The telescope led the way to the microscope, gun scopes. the  most hidden, least understood, and most important  chemical measureing instrument the spectroscope.  
    drawing of spectroscope
    Galileo and a spectroscope

     

    The addition of a spectroscope to a telescope  gave us the Hubble's  constant, the chemical make up of stars and planets.
     It helped bring on Quantum physics and   may be the instrument that shows  us that there  is life on other planets going around other stars than our sun. (If and when  this announcement  is made the authors   might want to consider wearing some asbestos underwear for a bit after they make it.. (( Remember Galileo's near miss with being burned alive using just two little pieces of glass and a  wooden tube to hold them. Think about  the trouble, that might arise,  when the  number of  spectroscopes looking through some  big telescopes finish their work on this project   :-)).

     

    Many do not have a complete feeling for the importance  of Galileo's work on the telescope which added so much  to modern science than just his discoveries in astronomy or his teaching of the use of  physical measurements instead of intuition. 
    We are not minimizing his total work but high lighting the magnitude of his contribution  when one considers that the telescope was an essential and motivating push in  the science of optics.     The telescope for example became an essential part of many  engineering, scientific, and medical  instruments. used today.  To mention just a few:   Transits gave us much more accurate surveying data and , at Greenwich, we get more accurate  time from sun and star transits. The telescope led the way to the microscope, gun scopes. the  most hidden, least understood, and most important  chemical measureing instrument the
    spectroscope.  The addition of a spectroscope to a telescope  gave us the Hubble's  constant, the chemical make up of stars and planets. It helped bring on Quantum physics and   may be the instrument that shows  us that there  is life on other planets going around other stars than our sun. (If and when  this announcement  is made the authors   might want to consider wearing some asbestos underwear for a bit after they make it.. (( Remember Galileo's near miss with being burned alive using just two little pieces of glass and a  wooden tube to hold them. Think about  the trouble, that might arise,  when the  number of  spectroscopes looking through some  big telescopes finish their work on this project   :-)).
     

    Galileo's telescope was an important step toward the  spectroscope  


    A photograph of the the whole visible spectra of the sun.  Note the dark lines from various elements. The dark lines  D are
    from the element of sodium. One can see the whole spectra by swinging the telescope arm of the spectroscope back and forth.

    Using two of our beautiful replicas of Galileo's telescopes. you can constructed a spectroscope
     one the most powerful measuring instrument in astronomy  and in the modern world.
    Why is this an important display for the IYA?   

     In our special celebration of the IYA we should include the spectroscope.  The spectroscope is a big time instrument in our every day world as well as in astronomy. This is why we have included this most beautiful instrument all dressed up and fancy for this occasion.

    Did you know that there are spectroscopes on Hubble and that most observatories  have  numbers of  them? In fact a telescope is just one part of a spectroscope.  Astronomers use them to study the chemical composition and motion of the sun and stars that  surround us . It also gave us a start to the world of quantum mechanics by explaining the spectra from glowing solid bodies and gases.

    Click here to see our "you tube movie" of this spectroscope

    Using three (3) Galileo telescopes or equivalent,  trade one eyepiece, for a slit in one , put a prism between the last 2   and one has the essence of the tool that is in most every observatory in the world including Hubble. Astronomers  use the spectroscope to tell us what chemicals that the  heavenly bodies are  made and  how fast they are going etc..  
     

    Our example of  the whole astronomical set up is shown in the picture below
     

    Each component in the photo to the left including the table of the elements ,many of which were discovered with the spectroscope,  is a consequence of Galileo's work in developing his telescope. If nothing else he made us aware of optics as a major tool in modern science and is  a wonderful, romantic and beautiful   instrument demonstration of  the step by step process of science. His Telescope are magnificent symbols  reminding and teaching us. that We might not be the center of the solar system or universe but we can and do things no other living creature has or can do.
    You too can demonstrate the hidden impact that Galileo's work had on our world. Order this suburb spectroscope with two of our replicas. (They do not have to be the same model, one could be the IMSS 2427 the other IMSS 2428.) doubling the value of a display. 
    Buy a third to demonstrate the collection of  the star light for input to the spectroscope!

     
    For roughly 400 years Galileo's telescopes and much of his work became  internationally famous in most of the world's cultures.
    • They have touched almost everything we love, hate, or care about. 
    • ; they made us a  much smaller part of the universe  than we originally thought we were, Certainly we were no longer the center of the universe. gave us the power to control gross amounts of energy

    •  are  an  extraordinary combination of beautiful works art introducing us to the spectacular art work of the heavens Yet,
    • they were designed by Galileo as instruments of war yet,

    • by contrast found their way into  hands of domestic commerce yet,

    • introduced us to (some would say) the heartlessness and wonders of the modern scientific  method. 

    • They are   extraordinary symbols of the human development in  philosophy and learning.

    • Yet we know little to nothing about these two little pieces of glass and the tubes holding them. nor

    •  how they all work together as a team to make such a difference In our way of light.

    ref 1aa  Sidereus Nuncius Galileo Galilei Translated by Albert Van Helden1989 Univ of Chicago. p91
    See our write up in "Galileo's Telescope The Instrument The Changed the World" edited by Giorgio Strano, Pub  Giunti 2008 (isbn 978-88-09-05938-2) can be bought at http://www.artbooks.com/wc.dll?AB~searchquick~&cart=0   (type in 97888090593)

         
    The team, Galileo in sprit,  Rhoda and Jim with the  final results for our 2428 replica where honesty, art and science become  one and wonderful.
    We  make them to your order,  by hand, using period practices.

     
    Galileo's thermometer Galileo Thermometer

    References

    Ref 1 The American Heritage Dictionary

    1a. Catalogue of Early Telescopes by Albert Van Helden 1999 Istituto e Museo di Storia Scienza dell Scienza, Firenzze

    2a. Sidereus or The Sidereal Messenger Galileo Galilei Translated with introduction, conclusion, and notes by Albert Van Helden The university of Chicago Press Chicago and London1989

    We thank Paul Valleli of Amateur Telescope Makers of Boston for discussions on adjustments of the focal length of the objective, recommending several source of information and generally paving a path to many resources including contacting Peter Abrahams of the Antique Telescope Society who very kindly supplied the references below. Also the is a well rounded collection of references and relevant information  pictures plus  interesting critiques maintained by Jim Mosher. Tom Pope both experience scientist.

    1, Baxandall, David. Replicas of Two Galileo Telescopes.
    Transactions of the
    Optical Society 25:3, (January 1924) 141-144. (measurements
    Galilean optics)

    2 Pettit, Edison. A Telescope of Galileo. Publications of the
    Astronomical
    Society of the Pacific 51 (June 1939) 147-150. (#301) (replica
    by Cipriani)

    3(Galileo) Barr, E. Scott. Men & Milestones in Optics, III: Galileo
    Galilei.
    Applied Optics 3:12 (1964) 1321-1328.

    4(Galileo) Drake, Stillman. Galileo Gleanings VI: Galileo's First
    Telescopes at
    Padua and Venice. Isis 50:3 (Sept. 1959) 245-254.

    5(Galileo) Drake, Stillman. Galileo's First Telescopes at Padua
    and Venice. Isis
    50 (1959) 245-54.

    6(Galileo) Greco, Vincenzo, G. Molesini, & F. Quercioli. Optical
    tests of
    Galileo's lenses. Nature 358 (July 9, 1992) 101. <& .pdf>

    6a V. Ronchi "Sopra i cannocchiali di Galileo," L 'Universo 4,791-804(1923)

    7(Galileo) Greco, Vincenzo et. al. Telescopes of Galileo. Applied
    Optics 32 #31
    (Nov. 1993) 6219.

    8(Galileo) Miniati, Mara. Examination of an Antique Telescope.
    Nuncius 9:2
    (1994) 677-682.

    9 (Galileo) Ringwood, Stephen. A Galilean telescope. Quarterly
    Journal of the
    Royal Astronomical Society 35 (1994) 43-50.

    10 (Galileo) Sonnefeld, August. Optical data of Galileo Galilei's
    celestial
    telescope. Jena Review #6 (1962) 207-212. <.jpg>

    11 (Galileo)Westfall, Richard. Science and Patronage: Galileo and
    the Telescope.
    Isis 76 (1985) 11-30. <& .pdf,.tif>

    12 (Galileo) Zik, Yaakov. Galileo and the Telescope. Nuncius 14:1
    (1999) 31-67.
    --------------
    13 (Galileo) Dupré, Sven. Galileo, the Telescope, and the Science
    of Optics in the
    Sixteenth Century: A Case Study of Instrumental Practice in Art
    and Science.
    PhD Dissertation, Universiteit Gent, Belgium, 2002. 366pp.
    --------
    14 (Galileo) Miniati, Mara, et al. Examination of a terrestrial
    telescope with the
    signature of Galileo. Optik 101:3 (Jan. 1996) 140-142.

    15 (Galileo) Greco, Vincenzo et. al. Modern Optical Testing on the
    Lenses of
    Galileo. pp110-121, Paolo Mazzoldi, ed.; From Galileo's
    Occhialino to
    16 Optoelectronics, conference Padova June 1992; Singapore:
    World Scientific, 1993.

    17 Sidereus Nuncius Galileo Galilei Translated by Albert Van Helden1989 Univ of Chicago. p91

    18  See the wonderful New book and catalog from the IMSS: "Galileo's Telescope The Instrument That Changed the World" edited by Giorgio Strano, Publ. Giunti 2008 (isbn 978-88-09-05938-2)  It covers the history of thought and technology in the development of the telescope over a broad spectrum of topics relevant to Galileo's time presented by a team of international experts.  It is an excellent historical and educational catalogue for their exhibition with wonderful technical analyses of the components of Galileo's telescope illustrated with magnificent photographs.

    (We were privileged to be one of the collaborators)

    Click to see Reference 1 resin composite construction

    reference to a  replica Hale had made for himself. mid 1900's

    1.   Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title: A Telescope of Galileo
    Authors: Pettit, E.
    Journal: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 51, No. 301, p.147
    Bibliographic Code: 1939PASP ..51 .147P

    http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1939PASP ..51 .147P

     

    Galileo as a ; 1 Basic research scientist,  2,Applied scientist,  3 Engineer  4 Entrepreneur 5 Galileo's Audit TrailWho was Galileo
    Galileo's telescopes;
     1 Telescope dimensions 2 The optics & looking thru them  3 Building #2428 4 Gold art work #2428   5  Building #2427 6  U-Tube movies of construction    
    Galileo's Team  1 References 2.Acknowledgements 3  Copy Rights and usage 4 Where is does  this lead to?

    We recommend  a new book  for everyone, tech or not tech, written by some of the most qualified Scholars in this  field.  "Galileo's Telescope The Instrument The Changed the World" edited by Giorgio Strano ( curator IMSS ), Pub  Giunti 2008 (isbn 978-88-09-05938-2) It can be bought at http://www.artbooks.com/wc.dll?AB~searchquick~&cart=0  ( type in 97888090593) It is a very beautiful book/Catalog.

     
    Copy rights and usage. Photos and written material are by Jim & Rhoda Morris unless noted otherwise. Free personal and educational use  is encouraged--- Acknowledgment is appreciated; all commercial rights are reserved

     

     SciTechAntiques.com  HOME PAGE  
    Copyright 04/18/2007 Jim & Rhoda Morris

    Notes
    T
    wo  tiny pieces of glass in the hands of a scientist  {an eyepiece and objective lens of a Galilean telescope} forever  changed our relationship  to the physical and spiritual world. They fueled a revolution in new scientific instruments, in scientific discoveries, nearly costing their inventor's life for telling the truth to his all powerful church.  They  gave birth to inventions for warfare, navigation, surveying, chemistry,  manufacturing , and cures for epidemic diseases. They awarded us  with life expectancies to 80es years..   But they also increased  the power of one person, to destroy  most of the inhabitance of an entire city  in  seconds with the tap of a  single finger or the possibility of the all powerful business world helping us to change the earth's average climate for the worse and forever. We've  made great progress in our quality of life, and gained more  freedom with every discovery we've made in science, even the little unnoticed ones. As we learn more and more through  science, it is increasingly important for us to understand how scientist do their jobs confirm and most of all their discoveries. Remember that Everything we do has a double edge sword.  too much water or fire we drown or burn us to death us to little we die of thirst or frost.

    At the same time of making these great discoveries scientist and  institutions teaching and talking about the science should be doing a much better job guarantying that the rest of the world knows in detail the ethics practiced by scientist how they assure the reliability of the discovery.  Scientist seem too preoccupied and excited  showing off their discoveries and how smart they are at making them  to concentrating on showing  in detail the process  that goes into validating  them. This may see too obvious and boring to those  in the game. of teaching science, schools, museums, blogger webmasters. All of those  But might be the only thing the bulk  or student  or tax payer can and should grasp. When they don't understand the science than its of the greatest importance to one being  impact by the discovery to know and  understand the truthfulness and reliability of the discovery. Not important?   Today lots of science fits this dilemma and is not funded or taught which is a significant lost to all even to the dissenters.

     One might disagree that it is important, or makes a difference to the average Joe or Jane who pays for the work, The authors have questioned over 600 people most of which (85%) believe that  half of the scientist  lie or miss manage their data at least half the time  Suppose the authors have made a mistake of 50% in this survey? That's still far to many unhappy people being denied the discoveries of science because of mistrust..  Who wants their tax dollars going to a bunch of liars or reckless madmen. Its time to take this condition seriously and fix it. Teachers and spokesman for science must start concentrating  on  the honesty and reliability of science's  discoveries and how it  is achieved in the scientific world. It time to concentrate on the story of science and how it is done  Not with figures, graphs, and words like phenomena and hypotheses that have proven  don't work well enough. We should explore ways  that  get down to something that most people fall back on,  something that  fits  into our common sense, emotional wisdom. Something that most of us use when making decisions too complex and detailed for most anyone to understand still use. We need a gut feeling for how scientist test each other work and why it works. An example that fits these requirement is

    The science story of Galileo and his telescopes fits a platform based on an internationally recognized and an emotionally  powerful event in science. The lessons in Galileo story  is ageless  high lighting the same problem  we face  today. Its  an example for understanding how scientist test their data.. The technical science of the telescope should be treated as interesting  side issues for some  the real  importance is  how Galileo gathered and dealt  with   his observation, his data , it shows the new more successful ways science was being handle. It show the emotional issues a scientist face 400 years ago that still exist today. How Galileo  tested the reliability and truthfulness of the  issues and relevance of his conclusion for resolving the all  important spiritual  Galileo was  faced with his all important and beloved church.  A story that all should come to learn and to know by heart..  It is the story of  science slowly but surely taking the power from the few and giving it back to the common man.  A story of the than  new use and dependence  on physical measurement  to guide our common sense when its not up to the job by its self . A story of how and why  two little pieces of glass less that 15 grams in weight  that forever changed, in the most meaningful way, our relationship to the spiritual and physical world that can still help teach us in the most vital, practical way in our path to the future.